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Full text of "Poland Russia and Great Britain 1941-1945"

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between the two Governments, and that feeling was particularly bitter
against ex-Premier Mikolajczyk, to whom the Lublin Poles were so anxious
to ofler the Premiership only three months ago. He was now considered
to be a public enemy in the same class as General Sosnkowski. Premier
Osubka said recent documents proving Mikolajczyk to have been responsible
for cases of terrorism in liberated areas had been seized by the Lublin
Government. Not a very pleasant sort of party to join, even with a safe-
guard from the British Government to see that you get there. That is
not all. At the beginning of this year there was a Soviet communique
dealing with the so-called Peasants' Congress in occupied Western Poland.
I quote only the final passage :
cc At the end of the session the Congress demanded the expulsion of the
leaders of the emigre Government—Arciszewski, Mikolajczyk and others
from Polish citizenship as traitors to the Polish nation."
It seems to me that they will be bold men who, until some safeguards are
produced, will be prepared to go out to Poland.    They will, indeed, unless
certain safeguards are proposed and certain decrees are rescinded, be men
who could almost be accused of wishful thinking.    But this is no matter
for jest.
The reason for this Amendment is that certain hon. Members of this
House, of whom I am one., believe profoundly that, even though Great
Britain might not be able at this stage to do much for Poland, we could do
something more than underwrite a charter for Poland which, without
proper safeguards, must be the end of Poland. The Prime Minister said
in his speech that of course all parties will have free elections, except
pro-Nazi and anti-democratic parties. I challenge him now : Can he name
one pro-Nazi party in Poland ? If there is one country which, under
suffering and misery, has kept its soul, it is Poland. We know so well that
the Russian, and indeed the Lublin, definitions of cc democracy" and
" pro-Nazi" are rather different from ours. Everybody with whom you
disagree in Russia is a pro-Nazi or an anti-democrat. In view of the fact
that the new Polish Government however it is created, will be formed
after consultations between the two Ambassadors and Mr. Molotov at
Moscow, and will be formed with the background of this continued abuse
of every known Polish leader and every great political party, whether it be
the National Party or the Socialist Party, it seems rather unlikely that the
old parties, and the supporters of these old parties, who have supported the
underground movement, will be recognised as being either anti-Nazi or
democratic. We have even had General Bor himself, the hero of Warsaw,
described as a capitulating traitor in the pay of Berlin.
I do not think that the Prime Minister can feel surprised if, under these
circumstances, we are inclined to say, cc Would it not have been better not
to have come to any agreement upon the final Eastern frontiers until the
war was over, and the thing could have been settled at the Peace Conference ?
Would it not have been better, instead of forming a Government which is
bound to be formed, as Press cuttings alone show, m an atmosphere of fear
and terrorism, to have had some inter-Allied Commission to carry on until
the war was over, and the parties themselves could be properly supervised;
and given an opportunity of free elections, under inter-Allied control, on
the basis of the Saar plebiscite. The only really fair international plebiscite
we have seen for many years ? "
The Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs (Mr. Eden) : I must
make it absolutely clear to the House that at every stage of this anxious
Polish business, lasting as it has now done over almost the whole of the war
period—and indeed starting from long before that—at any rate, so long as